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Antibiotic Resistance

What is antibiotic resistance?

Antibiotic resistance happens when bacteria and fungi develop the ability to resist the drugs that were initially designed to stop the replication of the bacteria. Statistically more than 2.8 million antibiotic- resistance infection occur in the U.S. each year.


4 types of antibiotic resistance

Antibiotic resistance can be due to four things:

- Limiting uptake of a drug

- Modifying a drug target

- Inactivation a drug

- Active drug efflux


What causes antibiotic resistance?

The cause of antibiotic resistance is antibiotic use. When antibiotics are used some bacteria die and others become resistance and survive so can now replicate to multiply. The overuse of antibiotics makes resistances to bacteria more common. The more antibiotics we use the more likely it is for bacteria to become resistance to the antibiotics.


However, there are other factors that also causes antibiotics to become resistance such as:

· Over-prescription of antibiotics

· Patients not finishing the entire antibiotic course

· Overuse of antibiotics in livestock and fish farming

· Poor infection control in health care settings

· Poor hygiene and sanitation

· Absence of new antibiotics being discovered


What is an example of antibiotic resistance?

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), penicillin-resistant enterococcus, and multidrug resistant mycobacterium tuberculosis (mdr-tb), which is resistant to two tuberculosis drugs, isoniazid and rifampicin.


How can we combat antibiotic resistance?

The way you can combat antibiotic resistance is by

- Reducing the use of antibiotics in medicine

- Improving animal antibiotic use – animals are given antibiotics with a duration of time.

FDA has funded to help improve antibiotics given to animals and duration.


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